: Cada año mi familia iba a Puerto Rico. Also, this construction—unlike the simple future form—is not used in the "probability" sense to express conjecture.[6]. All the compound tenses are formed with haber followed by the past participle of the main verb. In Spain, both sets of forms are used, but the -ra forms are predominant as well. Location of a person or thing is expressed with estar—regardless of whether temporary or permanent ("El hotel está en la esquina"/"The hotel is on the corner"). As one of Spanish's two simple past tenses, the preterite (often spelled as "preterit") has a conjugation that is essential to learn. Consider, for example, the phrase "the sun shone" in the following contexts: In the first two, it is clear that the shining refers to the background to the events that are about to unfold in the story. Additionally, the first-person plural, the "we" form of nosotros and nosotras, has the same conjugation for both the present indicative tense and the preterite past tense for -ar and -ir verbs. The future subjunctive is no longer used in modern language, except in legal language and some fixed expressions. It is also used to form progressive constructions, such as estoy haciendo ("I am doing"). ver (to see): vi, viste, vio, vimos, visteis, vieron. The subjunctive supplements the imperative in all other cases (negative expressions and the conjugations corresponding to the pronouns nosotros, él/ella, usted, ellos/ellas, and ustedes). The same goes for vivía/vivió en... "he lived in...". For example: When ser is used with the past participle of a verb, it forms the "true" passive voice, expressing an event ("El libro fue escrito en 2005"/"The book was written in 2005"). For example: La llevé al aeropuerto en coche, pero se le había olvidado el tiquete, así que fuimos a casa [en coche] por él, luego volvimos [en coche] hacia el aeropuerto, pero luego tuvimos que volver [en coche] por el pasaporte, y ya era imposible que consiguiésemos facturar el equipaje... = "I drove her to the airport, but she had forgotten her ticket, so we drove home to get it, then drove back towards the airport, but then had to drive back home for her passport, by which time there was zero chance of checking in...". Ver: Preterite Perfect Subjunctive Tense. The difference between a command and a wish is subtle, mostly conveyed by the absence of a wishing verb: With a verb that expresses wishing, the above sentences become plain subjunctive instead of direct commands: The future tense of the subjunctive is found mostly in old literature or legal language and is even misused in conversation by confusing it with the past tense (often due to the similarity of its characteristic suffix, -ere, as opposed to the suffixes of the past tense, -era and -ese). ser (to be): fui, fuiste, fue, fuimos, fuisteis, fueron. In Spanish, every verb has forms in three moods. The imperfect is used if this refers to any sort of habitual action—that is, the person took a bath every morning. llegar (to arrive): llegué, llegaste, llegó, llegamos, llegasteis, llegaron. The plural vosotros is always the same as the infinitive, but with a final -d instead of an -r in the formal, written form; the informal spoken form is the same as the infinitive. "running", "coming", "thinking" in English) are identical in form to the infinitive of the verb from which they are derived, and their gender is masculine. (Note that the preterite conjugations of ir and ser are identical.). To express the existence of a first or second person, the verb estar ("to be [located/present]") or existir ("to exist") is used, and there is subject–verb agreement. If one wishes to place emphasis on the subject of a command, it is placed after the verbal word: Note that the pronouns precede the verb in the negative commands as the mode is subjunctive, not imperative: no te comas/comás; no se coma/coman; no nos comamos; no os comáis. It is used to express an action that ended immediately before another past action: It is often replaced by either the preterite or the pluperfect, with the same meaning: The future perfect is formed with the future indicative of haber followed by the past participle of the main verb: It is used to indicate a future action that will be finished right before another action: As with the future, the conditional uses the entire infinitive as the stem. The word hablamos can mean either "we speak" or "we spoke," and escribimos can mean either "we write" or "we wrote." The so-called I-go verbs add a medial -g- in the first-person singular present tense (making the Yo ["I"] form end in -go; e.g., tener ["to have"] becomes tengo ["I have"]; venir ["to come"] becomes vengo ["I come"]). You may note that in the preterite tense, regular -er and -ir verbs use the same pattern of endings. In (3) and (4), it is clear that the shining refers to a regular, general, habitual event. In the remaining cases, both languages use a simple past. It is talking about what used to happen.

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