Bituminous coal is by far the largest group and is characterized as having lower fixed carbon (C) and higher volatile matter than anthracite coals. Volatility is also critical for steel-making and power generation, as this determines the burn rate of the coal. About 0.5 to 2 percent of the weight of bituminous coal is nitrogen. And there is water, hydrogen, sulfur and few other impurities. Bituminous coal is made free from sulfur, ash, as well as some other impurities, & it’s used in coal forges, in which metals are heated & then shaped. When burned, bituminous coal also releases hazardous gasses such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the case of coal, the volatile matter may include sulfur and hydrocarbons. When burned, bituminous coal also releases hazardous gasses such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Bituminous coal appears shiny and smooth when you first see it, but look closer and you may see it has layers. Many industries use coal to manufacture certain products. Bituminous coals are composed of three major Maceral groups, which, in the common terminology are known as vitrinite, liptinite (formerly called exinite), and inertinite (Fig 1). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bituminous_Coal.JPG, http://energy.about.com/od/Coal/a/Bituminous-Coal.htm, https://energyeducation.ca/wiki/index.php?title=Bituminous_coal&oldid=7854. Used to produce steam in coal fired power plant. It’s carbon content is approximately 45 to 85%. Coking is achieved by heating the coal in the absence of oxygen, which drives off volatile hydrocarbons such as propane, benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons, and some sulfur gases. Plant debris is a fragile material compared to the mineral materials that make up other rocks. Vitrinite is quantitatively the most important maceral, accounting for probably 60 % to 80 % of most worked coals, and it is the material primarily responsible for the characteristic coking behaviour of higher rank bituminous coals. There are many different bizarre human body medical facts that many people know. The important properties of the bituminous coals are vitrinite reflectance, moisture content, VM content, plasticity and ash content. Hence it is essential to have pollution control devices in the plants which are based on the combustion of the bituminous coal. Bituminous coal is an organic sedimentary rock formed by diagenetic and sub metamorphic compression of peat bog material. Usually, bituminous coal comes from fairly old coal deposits (around 300 million years) and exhibits a carbon content that ranges from 76-86%. If you are an astute reader you are probably wondering: "How can fifty feet of plant debris accumulate in water that is only a few feet deep?" The fifty feet of plant debris needed to make a five-foot thick coal seam would require thousands of years to accumulate. Coal-Forming Environments: A generalized diagram of a swamp, showing how water depth, preservation conditions, plant types, and plant productivity can vary in different parts of the swamp. Coking coal (metallurgical coal) is used in the manufacture of steel, where carbon must be as volatile-free and ash-free as possible. Most of the coal mined in the United States is transported to a power plant, crushed to a very small particle size, and burned. High volatile coals have VM typically between 31 % and 38 %, medium volatile coals have VM between 22% and 31 %, and low volatile coals have VM between 17 % and 22 %. So, accumulating ten feet of plant debris will take a long time. Incomplete combustion leads to higher levels of PAHs, which are carcinogenic. This type of coal was also previously used for a fuel for in domestic / home water heating. A mass of recently accumulated to partially carbonized plant debris. Bituminous is the most abundant rank of coal. There are two types of bituminous coal: thermal and metallurgical. The most important chemical elements of the metallurgical coal consist of S, phosphorus (P), and alkalis (Na, K). Bituminous usually has a high heating (Btu) value and is the most common type of coal used in electricity generation in the United States. The main pollutants that come from bituminous coal are sulfur oxides, particulate matter & nitrogen oxides. All Rights Reserved © 2019, Design & Developed By: Star Web Maker. , In the United States, Cretaceous bituminous coals occur in Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. It will take less then a minute, Technological and other processes/equipments associated with steel industry, Management in steel plant along with training and development, Raw materials and other materials used in steel plants, Role of Leadership in the Management of Organizations, Role of Communication in the Organization, Shape Control Technologies in Hot Strip Mill. The various uses of bituminous coal include the following. The second largest deposits of the world's bituminous coal are contained within Permian strata in Russia. Bituminous coal is often referred to as "soft coal"; however, this designation is a layman's term and has little to do with the hardness of the rock. Coal-Fired Power Plant: Photo of a power plant where coal is burned to produce electricity. Anthracite coal generally has the highest heating value per ton on a mineral-matter-free basis. This is measured by the free swelling index test. Some unburned substances can be found in them like carbon monoxide as well as various different organic compounds are also released from them, even under the proper operating conditions of a boiler. Certain Australian coals are the best in the world for these purposes, requiring little to no blending. The three large stacks are cooling towers where water used in the electricity generation process is cooled before reuse or release to the environment. Coals of this era are rare, and many contain fossils of flowering plants. For its carbonization into coke for use in the blast furnace, cupola, and foundries. Metallurgical Coal: sometimes referred to as coking coal, is used in the process of creating coke necessary for iron and steel production. Based on this classification bituminous coal is of three types namely (i) low volatile, (ii) medium volatile, and (iii) high volatile. If the water becomes too deep, the plants of the swamp will drown, and if the water cover is not maintained the plant debris will decay. ", http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/1organic/coal.html, Environmental impact of the coal industry, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bituminous_coal&oldid=987798835, Articles with limited geographic scope from February 2017, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Veenstra, Theodore A., and Wilbert G. Fritz. Swamp waters are usually deficient in oxygen, which would react with the plant debris and cause it to decay. In addition, insects and other organisms that might consume the plant debris on land do not survive well under water in an oxygen-deficient environment. Australia exports the vast majority of its coal for coking and steel making in Japan. Oxygen (O2) content of the coal varies in the range of 3 % to 12 %.
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